Chlorate in food

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Article
chlorate, human health risk assessment, food
First published in the EFSA Journal
24 June 2015
Adopted
3 June 2015
Type
Opinion of the Scientific Committee/Scientific Panel
Abstract

Following a request from the European Commission, the risks to human health related to the presence of chlorate in food were assessed by the EFSA Panel on Contaminants in the Food Chain (CONTAM Panel). The presence of chlorate in food can arise from the use of chlorinated water for food processing and the disinfection of food-processing equipment. Inhibition of iodine uptake in humans was identified as the critical effect for chronic exposure to chlorate. A tolerable daily intake (TDI) of 3 µg chlorate/kg body weight (b.w.) was set by read-across from a TDI of 0.3 µg/kg b.w. derived for this effect for perchlorate, multiplied by a factor of 10 to account for the lower potency of chlorate. Formation of methaemoglobin was identified as the critical acute effect of chlorate. An acute reference dose (ARfD) of 36 µg chlorate/kg b.w. was derived from a no-observed-effect-level for chlorate in a controlled clinical study. Chronic exposure of adolescent and adult age classes did not exceed the TDI. However, at the 95th percentile the TDI was exceeded in all surveys in ‘Infants’ and ‘Toddlers’ and in some surveys in ‘Other children’. Chronic exposures are of concern in particular in younger age groups with mild or moderate iodine deficiency. Mean and 95th percentile acute exposures were below the ARfD for all age groups indicating no concern. Based on the current practices in food industry, application of a hypothetical maximum residue limit (MRL) of 0.7 mg/kg for all foodstuffs and drinking water would only minimally reduce acute/chronic exposures and related risks. Assuming chlorate concentrations of 0.7 mg/kg for all foods and drinking water consumed in a day, acute exposures would increase by up to about 5-fold and the ARfD be exceeded at mean estimates in  ‘Infants’ and ‘Toddlers’ and at 95th percentile also in ‘Other children’and ‘Adults’.

Panel members at the time of adoption
Diane Benford, Sandra Ceccatelli, Bruce Cottrill, Michael DiNovi, Eugenia Dogliotti, Lutz Edler, Peter Farmer, Peter Fürst, Laurentius (Ron) Hoogenboom, Helle Katrine Knutsen, Anne-Katrine Lundebye, Manfred Metzler, Antonio Mutti (as of 6 October 2014), Carlo Stefano Nebbia, Michael O’Keeffe, Annette Petersen (as of 6 October 2014), Ivonne Rietjens (until 2 May 2014), Dieter Schrenk, Vittorio Silano (until 21 July 2014), Hendrik van Loveren, Christiane Vleminckx, and Pieter Wester.
Panel on Contaminants in the Food Chain
Contact
contam [at] efsa.europa.eu
doi
10.2903/j.efsa.2015.4135
EFSA Journal 2015;13(6):4135 [103 pp.].
Question Number
On request from
European Commission
Print on demand
Number of Pages
103