Scientific Opinion on porcine epidemic diarrhoea and emerging porcine deltacoronavirus

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Article
Panel on Animal Health and Welfare
EFSA Journal
EFSA Journal 2014;12(10):3877 [68 pp.].
doi
10.2903/j.efsa.2014.3877
Panel members at the time of adoption
Edith Authie, Charlotte Berg, Anette Bøtner, Howard Browman, Aline De Koeijer, Klaus Depner, Mariano Domingo, Christian Ducrot, Sandra Edwards, Christine Fourichon, Frank Koenen, Simon More, Mohan Raj, Liisa Sihvonen, Hans Spoolder, Jan Arend Stegeman, Hans-Hermann Thulke, Ivar Vågsholm, Antonio Velarde and Preben Willeberg
Acknowledgements

The Panel wishes to thank the members of the Working Group on PEDV and PDCoV: Anette Bøtner, Ana Maria Carvajal, Paolo Martelli and Nicolas Rose for the preparatory work on this scientific opinion, the hearing expert Phil Gauger and EFSA staff: Frank Verdonck and Andrey Gogin for the support provided to this scientific opinion.

Type
Opinion of the Scientific Committee/Scientific Panel
On request from
European Commission
Question Number
EFSA-Q-2014-00361
Adopted
22 October 2014
Published in the EFSA Journal
31 October 2014
Affiliation
European Food Safety Authority (EFSA), Parma, Italy
Note
Abstract

In the last decade, many porcine epidemic diarrhoea (PED) outbreaks have been reported by several countries in Asia whereas only a few Member States of the European Union (EU) have reported PED clinical cases and/or PED virus (PEDV)-seropositive animals. This alphacoronavirus was first reported in the USA in May 2013, followed by rapid spread throughout the country and outbreaks reported by several countries in the Americas. The recent PEDV-EU isolates have high level of sequence identity to PEDV-Am isolates. Based on nucleotide sequencing, multiple variants of PEDV are circulating in Europe, the Americas and Asia but any difference in virulence and antigenicity is currently unknown. Serological cross-reactivity has been reported between PEDV isolated in Europe and in the Americas; however no data regarding cross-protection are available. The impact of different PEDV strains is difficult to compare between one country and another, since impact is dependent not only on pathogenicity but also on factors such as biosecurity, farm management, sanitary status or herd immune status. However, the clinical signs of PEDV infections in naive pigs are similar in different countries with mortalities up to 100% in naive newborn piglets. The impact of recently reported PED outbreaks in Asia and the USA seems to be more severe than what has been described in Europe. Infected animals, faeces, feed and objects contaminated with faeces are matrices that have been reported to transmit PEDV between farms. Infectious PEDV has been detected in spray-dried porcine plasma (SDPP) in one study but the origin of the infectious PEDV in SDPP is not clear. Detection of porcine deltacoronavirus (PDCoV) has been reported in a few countries but only limited testing has been done. Based on the currently available information, it seems that PDCoV would have a lower impact than PEDV.

Keywords
alphacoronavirus, deltacoronavirus, pig, diarrhoea, cross-protection, impact, matrix
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Number of Pages
68