Scientific Opinion on the risks to human and animal health related to the presence of beauvericin and enniatins in food and feed

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Article
Panel on Contaminants in the Food Chain
EFSA Journal
EFSA Journal 2014;12(8):3802 [174 pp.].
doi
10.2903/j.efsa.2014.3802
Panel members at the time of adoption
Diane Benford, Sandra Ceccatelli, Bruce Cottrill, Michael Dinovi, Eugenia Dogliotti, Lutz Edler, Peter Farmer, Peter Fürst, Laurentius (Ron) Hoogenboom, Helle Katrine Knutsen, Anne-Katrine Lundebye, Manfred Metzler, Carlo Stefano Nebbia, Michael O’Keeffe, Ivonne Rietjens (until 2 May 2014), Dieter Schrenk, Vittorio Silano, Hendrik van Loveren, Christiane Vleminckx, and Pieter Wester.
Acknowledgements

The Panel wishes to thank the members of the Working Group on Fusarium toxins: Bruce Cottrill, Lutz Edler, Gunnar Sundstøl Eriksen, Peter Farmer, Johanna Fink-Gremmels (until 28 January 2014), Jean-Marc Fremy, Yun Yun Gong, Rudolf Krska, Karsten Meyer, Hanspeter Naegeli, Isabelle Oswald, Dominique Parent-Massin, Ivonne Rietjens (until 2 May 2014), Hans van Egmond and Christiane Vleminckx (until 12 November 2013) for the preparatory work on this scientific opinion and EFSA staff: Davide Arcella, Bistra Benkova, Gina Cioacata, Mari Eskola, Petra Gergelova, Juan Manuel Parra Morte, Luisa Ramos Bordajandi and Eniko Varga for the support provided to this scientific opinion. The CONTAM Panel acknowledges all European competent authorities that provided occurrence data on beauvericin and enniatins in food and feed, and supported the consumption data collection for the Comprehensive European Food Consumption Database. The Panel also acknowledges the research laboratories that provided additional occurrence data on beauvericin and enniatins in food and feed.

Type
Opinion of the Scientific Committee/Scientific Panel
On request from
European Commission
Question Number
EFSA-Q-2010-00999
Adopted
17 July 2014
Published in the EFSA Journal
7 August 2014
Affiliation
European Food Safety Authority (EFSA), Parma, Italy
Note
Abstract

Beauvericin and enniatins are mycotoxins produced by various Fusarium species. The European Commission asked EFSA for a scientific opinion on the risk to human and animal health related to the presence of beauvericin and enniatins in food and feed. A total of 12 685 analytical results for beauvericin and enniatins in food, feed and unprocessed grains were evaluated. For the assessment of enniatins, the sum of enniatins A, A1, B and B1 were considered. The most important contributors to the chronic dietary exposure to beauvericin and the sum of enniatins were ‘Grains and grain-based products’, especially ‘Bread and rolls’, ‘Fine bakery wares’ and ‘Pasta (raw)’. Given the lack of relevant toxicity data, a risk assessment was not possible. To obtain some insights in the possible risks of both mycotoxins at the estimated acute dietary exposure levels, these were compared to the LD 50 values of beauvericin and of the drug fusafungine (a mixture of enniatins). For the chronic exposure, an estimate for the LOAEL of fusafungine was considered. The CONTAM Panel concluded that acute exposure to beauvericin and enniatins do not indicate concern for human health. There might be a concern with respect to chronic exposure but no firm conclusion could be drawn, thus relevant in vivo toxicity data are needed to perform a human risk assessment. Animal exposure to beauvericin and enniatins was primarily from consuming cereal grains and cereal by-products. Using the LD 50 values of beauvericin and fusafungine, adverse health effects from the acute exposure to beauvericin and the sum of enniatins for farm and companion animals were unlikely. The chronic exposure for poultry indicated that adverse health effects from beauvericin and enniatins were unlikely. For other considered animals, the lack of LOAELs/NOAELs precluded the estimation of chronic health risk from beauvericin and enniatins.

Keywords
beauvericin, enniatins, food, feed, exposure, toxicity, risk assessment
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Number of Pages
174