Scientific Opinion on Flavouring Group Evaluation 401 (FGE.401): γ-Glutamyl-valyl-glycine from chemical group 34

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Article
Panel on Food Contact Materials, Enzymes, Flavourings and Processing Aids
EFSA Journal
EFSA Journal 2014;12(4):3625 [34 pp.].
doi
10.2903/j.efsa.2014.3625
Panel members at the time of adoption
Ulla Beckman Sundh, Mona-Lise Binderup, Claudia Bolognesi, Leon Brimer, Laurence Castle, Alessandro Di Domenco, Karl-Heinz Engel, Roland Franz, Nathalie Gontard, Rainer Gürtler, Trine Husøy, Klaus-Dieter Jany, Martine Kolf-Clauw, Wim Mennes, Maria Rosaria Milana, Iona Pratt †, Kettil Svensson, Maria de Fátima Tavares Poças, Fidel Toldrá and Detlef Wölfle
Acknowledgements

The Panel wishes to thank the members of the Working Group on Flavourings: Ulla Beckman Sundh, Leon Brimer, Angelo Carere, Karl-Heinz Engel, Henrik Frandsen, Rainer Gürtler, Frances Hill, Trine Husøy, Wim Mennes, Gerard Mulder and Harriet Wallin for the preparatory work on this scientific opinion and the hearing experts: Vibe Beltoft, Pia Lund and Karin Nørby and EFSA’s staff member : Maria Carfí, Annamaria Rossi and Kim Rygaard Nielsen for the support provided to this scientific opinion.

Contact
Type
Opinion of the Scientific Committee/Scientific Panel
On request from
European Commission
Question Number
EFSA-Q-2013-00409
Adopted
27 March 2014
Published
10 April 2014
Affiliation
European Food Safety Authority (EFSA), Parma, Italy
Note
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Abstract

The Panel on Food Contact Materials, Enzymes, Flavourings and Processing Aids of the European Food Safety Authority was requested to carry out a safety assessment of one flavouring substance, γ-glutamyl-valyl-glycine [FL-no: 17.038], in the Flavouring Group Evaluation 401 (FGE.401), in accordance with the Commission Regulation (EC) No 1331/2008. There is no safety concern with respect to genotoxicity for the flavouring substance. It has been demonstrated that the flavouring substance, which is a tripeptide, will be hydrolysed to the three amino acids L-glutamic acid, L-valine and glycine. As the human consumption of these three endogenous amino acids through food is orders of magnitude higher than the anticipated levels of exposure from their use as flavouring substances, the Panel concluded that γ-glutamyl-valyl-glycine [FL-no: 17.038] would be of no safety concern at its estimated level of intake as flavouring substance. The specifications for γ-glutamyl-valyl-glycine [FL-no: 17.038] are considered adequate according to Commission Regulation (EC) no 1334/2008.

Summary

Following a request from the European Commission, the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) asked the Panel on Food Contact Materials, Enzymes, Flavourings and Processing Aids (CEF Panel) to deliver a scientific opinion to the Commission on the implications for human health of chemically defined flavouring substances used in or on foodstuffs in the Member States. In particular, EFSA was requested to carry out a safety assessment of one flavouring substance (candidate substance) in the Flavouring Group Evaluation 401 (FGE.401) in accordance with Commission Regulation (EC) no. 1334/2008.

The candidate substance, γ-glutamyl-valyl-glycine [FL-no: 17.038], is a synthetic substance; however, it has been identified as a natural component in vegetable and animal materials and has been quantitated in some unprocessed and processed food.

According to the applicant, γ-glutamyl-valyl-glycine [FL-no: 17.038] is intended to be used to modify and balance the total flavour bringing out the middle to afternote and adds brothy, creamy flavours similar to that of well-cooked stew.

The dietary exposure to the candidate substance from use as a flavouring substance is calculated to be 92 μg/kg bw/day in a 60 kg adult and 231 μg/kg bw/day in a 15 kg three-year old child. The Panel is aware that the flavouring substance is not intended to be used in the food categories specifically intended for infants and young children, however, they may also consume food from the general food categories flavoured with the candidate substance. Nevertheless, as the safety assessment of the substance is based on exposure to the separate amino acids, the Panel considers this to be of no safety concern.

There was no indication of a genotoxic potential of the candidate substance in the bacteria reversion mutation assays, in an in vitro chromosome aberration assay or in an in vivo micronucleus test.

Since it can be assumed that the candidate substance γ-glutamyl-valyl-glycine [FL-no: 17.038] is rapidly hydrolysed to its individual amino acids after consumption, the Panel based its risk assessment on the hydrolysis products, the three individual amino acids, L-glutamic acid (evaluated by the JECFA, JECFA no 1420), L-valine [FL-no: 17.028] (evaluated by the EFSA in FGE.26Rev1) and glycine [FL-no: 17.034] (evaluated by the JECFA, JECFA no 1421 and considered by EFSA in FGE.79). The human exposure to these three endogenous amino acids through food is orders of magnitude higher than the anticipated levels of exposure from their use as flavouring substances. Therefore, these three substances were not taken through the Procedure and the Panel concluded that the substances were not of safety concern at their estimated levels of intake as flavouring substances.

The specifications for [FL-no: 17.038] are considered adequate according to Commission Regulation (EC) no 1334/2008. 

Based on the above considerations, the candidate substance γ-glutamyl-valyl-glycine [FL-no: 17.038] is not considered to be of safety concern at its estimated level of intake as flavouring substance.

Keywords
food safety, flavouring, γ-glutamyl-valyl-glycine, [FL-no: 17.038], CASrn 38837-70-6
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Number of Pages
34