Scientific Opinion on the safety and efficacy of furanones and tetrahydrofurfuryl derivatives: 5-ethyl-3-hydroxy-4-methylfuran-2(5H)-one and 3-hydroxy-4,5-dimethylfuran-2(5H)-one (chemical group 13) when used as flavourings for all animal species
5-Ethyl-3-hydroxy-4-methylfuran-2(5H)-one and 3-hydroxy-4,5-dimethylfuran-2(5H)-one belong to chemical group 13 (furanones and tetrahydrofurfuryl derivatives) and are authorised for use as flavours in food. These additives are safe at concentrations of 0.05 mg/kg feed for poultry and pigs and 0.08 mg/kg feed for cattle, salmonids and non food-producing animals. The concentration of the additives should be appropriately reduced if used in water for drinking. If used simultaneously in feed and water for drinking, the total intake should not exceed the maximum dose resulting from the use of the flavourings in feed alone. At the levels safe for target animal species these products are safe for the consumers of animal products. The FEEDAP Panel considers it prudent to treat the compounds under assessment as irritant to skin, eyes and the respiratory tract and as skin sensitisers. The proposed concentration of 0.08 mg flavouring compound/kg feed is unlikely to have detrimental effects on the environment except when used in feed for fish in sea cages, in which case the safe concentration would be 0.047 mg/kg. Since both compounds are used in food as flavourings, and their function in feed is essentially the same as that in food, no further demonstration of efficacy is necessary.