Scientific Opinion on Dietary Reference Values for pantothenic acid

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Article
Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies
EFSA Journal
EFSA Journal 2014;12(2):3581 [25 pp.].
doi
10.2903/j.efsa.2014.3581
Panel members at the time of adoption
Carlo Agostoni, Roberto Berni Canani, Susan Fairweather-Tait, Marina Heinonen, Hannu Korhonen, Sébastien La Vieille, Rosangela Marchelli, Ambroise Martin, Androniki Naska, Monika Neuhäuser-Berthold, Grażyna Nowicka, Yolanda Sanz, Alfonso Siani, Anders Sjödin, Martin Stern, Sean (J.J.) Strain, Inge Tetens, Daniel Tomé, Dominique Turck and Hans Verhagen
Acknowledgements

The Panel wishes to thank the members of the Working Group on Dietary Reference Values for vitamins: Monika Neuhäuser-Berthold, Grażyna Nowicka, Kristina Pentieva, Hildegard Przyrembel, Sean (J.J.) Strain, Inge Tetens, Daniel Tomé and Dominique Turck for the preparatory work on this scientific opinion.

Contact
Type
Opinion of the Scientific Committee/Scientific Panel
On request from
European Commission
Question Number
EFSA-Q-2011-01219
Adopted
5 February 2014
Published
24 February 2014
Affiliation
European Food Safety Authority (EFSA), Parma, Italy
Note
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Abstract

Following a request from the European Commission, the Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies (NDA) derived Dietary Reference Values (DRVs) for pantothenic acid. Pantothenic acid is a water-soluble vitamin, which is a component of coenzyme A (CoA) and acyl-carrier proteins. Pantothenic acid is ubiquitous and deficiency is rare. There are no suitable biomarkers that can be used to derive the requirement for pantothenic acid. Data available on pantothenic acid intakes and health consequences are very limited and cannot be used to derive DRVs for pantothenic acid. As there is insufficient evidence available to derive an Average Requirement and a Population Reference Intake, an Adequate Intake (AI) is proposed. The setting of AIs is based on observed pantothenic acid intakes with a mixed diet and the apparent absence of signs of deficiency in the EU, suggesting that current intake levels are adequate. The AI for adults is set at 5 mg/day. The AI for adults also applies to pregnant women. For lactating women, an AI of 7 mg/day is proposed, to compensate for pantothenic acid losses through breast milk. For infants over six months, an AI of 3 mg/day is proposed by extrapolating from the pantothenic acid intake of exclusively breast-fed infants aged zero to six months, using allometric scaling and reference body weight for each age group, in order to account for the role of pantothenic acid in energy metabolism. The AI for children and adolescents is set at 4 and 5 mg/day, respectively, based on observed intakes in the EU.

Summary

Following a request from the European Commission, the EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies (NDA) was asked to deliver a scientific opinion on Dietary Reference Values (DRVs) for the European population, including pantothenic acid.

In 1993, the Scientific Committee for Food (SCF) proposed an Acceptable Range of Intakes of pantothenic acid for adults of 3–12 mg/day, based on observed intakes of pantothenic acid in European countries, which were considered adequate to meet requirements and prevent deficiency.

Pantothenic acid is a water-soluble vitamin, which is a component of coenzyme A (CoA) and acyl-carrier proteins. Pantothenic acid is ubiquitous and deficiency is rare. Foods rich in pantothenic acid include meat (products), eggs, nuts, avocados and cruciferous vegetables. The main contributors to pantothenic acid intakes include meat products, bread, milk-based products and vegetables.

Data on pantothenic acid absorption are lacking. Most of the pantothenic acid in tissues is present as CoA, mainly found in mitochondria, with lesser amounts present as acyl-carrier protein and free pantothenic acid. Pantothenic acid is excreted in urine, after hydrolysis of CoA in a multistep reaction.

Urinary excretion of pantothenic acid and, to a lesser extent, pantothenic acid concentration in whole blood or erythrocytes reflect pantothenic acid intake. Data from the general population are limited so that the variability characteristics of these biomarkers and their ability to discriminate between pantothenic acid insufficiency and adequacy are not well known. No cut-off values have been established for these biomarkers. The Panel considers that there are no suitable biomarkers that can be used to derive the Average Requirement (AR) for pantothenic acid.

Data available on pantothenic acid intakes and health consequences are very limited and cannot be used for deriving DRVs for pantothenic acid.

As the evidence to derive an AR and thus a Population Reference Intake is considered insufficient, an Adequate Intake (AI) is proposed for all population groups. There is no indication that the AI should differ according to sex. The setting of AIs is based on observed pantothenic acid intakes with a mixed diet and the apparent absence of signs of deficiency in the EU, suggesting that current intake levels are adequate. Estimates of pantothenic acid intakes in children and adolescents, adults and older adults were available from eight EU countries. In boys and girls (3–12 years), mean/median intakes of 3.0 to 5.7 mg/day were reported, while mean/median intakes of 3.0 to 7.2 mg/day were observed in adolescent boys and girls (11–19 years). In adult men and women below about 65 years, mean/median intakes of 3.2 to 6.3 mg/day were reported, while mean/median intakes were between 2.2 and 6.0 mg/day in older men and women. Data on pantothenic acid intakes in pregnancy were scarce.

The AI for adults is set at 5 mg/day. The AI for adults also applies to pregnant women. For lactating women, an AI of 7 mg/day is proposed, to compensate for pantothenic acid losses through breast milk. For infants over six months, an AI of 3 mg/day is proposed by extrapolating from the pantothenic acid intake of exclusively breast-fed infants aged zero to six months, using allometric scaling (body weight to the power of 0.75) and reference body weight for each age group, in order to account for the role of pantothenic acid in energy metabolism, and rounding to the nearest unit. The AIs for children and adolescents are set at 4 and 5 mg/day, respectively, based on observed intakes in the EU.

Keywords
pantothenic acid, Dietary Reference Value, Adequate Intake
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Number of Pages
25