Scientific Opinion on the safety and efficacy of furanones and tetrahydrofurfuryl derivatives: 4-hydroxy-2,5-dimethylfuran-3(2H)-one, 4,5-dihydro-2-methylfuran-3(2H)-one, 4-acetoxy-2,5-dimethylfuran-3(2H)-one and linalool oxide (chemical group 13) when used as flavourings for all animal species

Sensory additives, furanones and tetrahydrofurfuryl derivatives, chemical group 13, 4-hydroxy-2,5-dimethylfuran-3(2H)-one, 4,5-dihydro-2-methylfuran-3(2H)-one, 4-acetoxy-2,5-dimethylfuran-3(2H)-one and linalool oxide
First published in the EFSA Journal
23 July 2012
13 June 2012
Scientific Opinion


Chemical group 13 consists of furanones and tetrahydrofurfuryl derivatives of which four are currently authorised for use as flavours in food. 4-Hydroxy-2,5-dimethylfuran-3(2H)-one and 4,5-dihydro-2-methylfuran-3(2H)-one are calculated to be safe at the maximum proposed dose of 5 mg/kg complete feed for all target species, while the safe use levels for 4-acetoxy-2,5-di–methylfuran-3(2H)-one and linalool oxide are 0.5 for cattle, salmonids and non food-producing animals and 0.3 mg/kg complete feed for pigs and poultry. Consumer exposure to a different qualitative pattern of metabolites than when used in food is not expected from the use of the flavours in feedingstuffs for mammals. Since no acceptable daily intake is specified for the flavourings under assessment no further consideration of consumer safety is necessary. As the metabolic pathways for these compounds have not been established in poultry and fish, no conclusion on consumer safety can be drawn for their use in feed for these species. The FEEDAP Panel considers it prudent to treat the compounds under assessment as irritant to skin, eyes and the respiratory tract and as skin sensitizers. The trigger value for the predicted environmental concentration for all environmental compartments at the proposed use level of 5 mg/kg complete feed is exceeded for all four compounds. Consequently, in the absence of ecotoxicity data, the risk for the environment cannot be assessed at this use level. For all four compounds at a level of use of 0.5 mg/kg complete feed, the soil compartment would be protected but no conclusion can be drawn on the safety for the aquatic compartment. Since all four compounds are used in food as flavourings and their function in feed is essentially the same as that in food, no further demonstration of efficacy is necessary.

Panel members at the time of adoption

Gabriele Aquilina, Georges Bories, Andrew Chesson, Pier Sandro Cocconcelli, Joop de Knecht, Noël Albert Dierick, Mikolaj Antoni Gralak, Jürgen Gropp, Ingrid Halle, Christer Hogstrand, the late Reinhard Kroker, Lubomir Leng, Secundino López Puente, Anne-Katrine Lundebye Haldorsen, Alberto Mantovani, Giovanna Martelli, Miklós Mézes, Derek Renshaw, Maria Saarela, Kristen Sejrsen and Johannes Westendorf
Panel on Additives and Products or Substances used in Animal Feed
EFSA Journal 2012;10(7):2786
Question Number
On request from
European Commission