Scientific Opinion on Brominated Flame Retardants (BFRs) in Food: Brominated Phenols and their Derivatives
EFSA was asked by the European Commission to deliver a scientific opinion on brominated phenols and their derivatives, other than tetrabromobisphenol A (TBBPA) or its derivatives, in food. Brominated phenols and their derivatives comprise a complex group of brominated flame retardants, used as reactive as well as additive flame retardants in a large range of resins and polyester polymers. A call for data was issued by EFSA in December 2009. No data on brominated phenols or their derivatives were submitted to EFSA. A limited number of occurrence data, covering the food group “Fish and other seafood”, was identified in the literature. Data from European sampling showed that 2,4,6-tribromophenol (2,4,6-TBP) predominates over the other brominated phenols. Toxicity studies are scarce and mostly relates to 2,4,6-TBP. The main targets are liver and kidneys. In a limited repeated dose oral toxicity study a no-observed-adverse-effect level (NOAEL) for 2,4,6-TBP of 100 mg/kg b.w. per day was identified. 2,4,6-TBP was not genotoxic in bacterial tests in vitro, and not in vivo, but induced chromosomal aberrations in mammalian cells in vitro. No long-term toxicity or carcinogenicity studies with 2,4,6-TBP were identified. The CONTAM Panel concluded that due to the limitations and uncertainties in the current database, the establishment of a health based guidance value for 2,4,6-TBP was not appropriate. Therefore, the Panel derived a margin of exposure to assess the level of possible health concern for high consumers of fish, molluscs and crustaceans. The CONTAM Panel concluded that it is unlikely that current dietary exposure to 2,4,6-TBP in the European Union would raise a health concern. Also exposure of infants to 2,4,6-TBP via breast feeding is unlikely to raise a health concern. Due to lack of data a risk assessment of the other brominated phenols or their derivatives is not possible.