Scientific Opinion on the risks for animal and public health related to the presence of T-2 and HT-2 toxin in food and feed

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Acknowledgements

The Panel wishes to thank the members of the Working Group on Fusarium toxins: Bruce Cottrill, Susanne Döll, Lutz Edler, Gunnar Sundstøl Eriksen, Peter Farmer, Johanna Fink-Gremmels, Jean-Marc Fremy, Yun Yun Gong, Rudolf Krska, Karsten Meyer, Isabelle Oswald, Dominique Parent-Massin and Hans van Egmond for the preparatory work on this scientific opinion and EFSA staff: Gina Cioacata, Valeriu Curtui, Mari Eskola and Giuseppe Triacchini for the support provided to this scientific opinion. The CONTAM Panel acknowledges all European competent authorities and other stakeholders that provided occurrence data on T-2 and HT-2 toxins for food and feed, and supported the consumption data collection for the Comprehensive European Food Consumption Database.

Panel on Contaminants in the Food Chain
EFSA Journal
EFSA Journal 2011;9(12):2481 [187 pp.].
doi
10.2903/j.efsa.2011.2481
Panel members at the time of adoption
Jan Alexander, Diane Benford, Alan Boobis, Sandra Ceccatelli, Bruce Cottrill, Jean-Pierre Cravedi, Alessandro Di Domenico, Daniel Doerge, Eugenia Dogliotti, Lutz Edler, Peter Farmer, Metka Filipič, Johanna Fink-Gremmels, Peter Fürst, Thierry Guérin, Helle Katrine Knutsen, Miroslav Machala, Antonio Mutti, Josef Schlatter, Martin Rose and Rolaf van Leeuwen
Type
Opinion of the Scientific Committee/Scientific Panel
On request from
European Commission
Question Number
EFSA-Q-2010-00962
Adopted
30 November 2011
Published
19 December 2011
Last Updated
11 June 2013. This version replaces the previous one/s.
Affiliation
European Food Safety Authority (EFSA), Parma, Italy
Note
Abstract

T-2 toxin and HT-2 toxin are mycotoxins produced by various Fusarium species. The European Commission asked EFSA for a scientific opinion on the risk to human and animal health related to the presence of T-2 and HT-2 toxin in food and feed. A total of 20,519 results for the sum of T-2 and HT-2 toxins in food, feed and unprocessed grains, collected in 2005-2010 from 22 European countries, were used in the evaluation. The highest mean concentrations for the sum of T-2 and HT-2 toxins were observed in grains and grain milling products, notably in oats and oat products. Grains and grain-based foods, in particular bread, fine bakery wares, grain milling products, and breakfast cereals, made the largest contribution to the sum of T-2 and HT-2 toxin exposure for humans. T-2 toxin is rapidly metabolised to a large number of products, HT-2 toxin being a major metabolite. Pigs are amongst the most sensitive animals towards the effects of T-2 toxin, the most sensitive endpoints being immunological or haematological effects. Using these data and a benchmark dose analysis the Panel on Contaminants in the Food Chain established a group tolerable daily intake (TDI) of 100 ng/kg b.w. for the sum of T-2 and HT-2 toxins. Estimates of chronic human dietary exposure to the sum of T-2 and HT-2 toxins based on the available occurrence data are below the TDI for populations of all age groups, and thus not a health concern. For ruminants, rabbits and farmed fish the estimated exposures to the sum of these toxins based on the available occurrence data are considered unlikely to be a health concern, while for pigs, poultry, dogs and horses the risk of adverse health effects is low. For cats the health risk from the exposure to T-2 and HT-2 toxins cannot be assessed.

Keywords
Mycotoxins, Fusarium, HT-2 toxin, T-2 toxin, food, feed, analysis, occurrence, human dietary exposure, animal dietary exposure, risk assessment, toxicity, tolerable daily intake (TDI)
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Number of Pages
187