Results on acrylamide levels in food from monitoring years 2007-2009 and Exposure assessment
The current report describes the results from the European acrylamide monitoring in the period from 2007 to 2009. Twenty three Member States and Norway submitted a total of 10366 acrylamide results for the three-year period. In 2009, mean acrylamide levels ranged from 37 µg/kg for ‘soft bread’ to 1504 µg/kg for ‘substitute coffee’, while the highest 95th percentile and maximum levels were reported for ‘substitute coffee’ at 3976 and ‘potato crisps’ at 4804 µg/kg, respectively. A mixed effect model was used to evaluate time trend changes in acrylamide levels in defined food groups. To detect clear statistical trends the number of years covered should be extended. However, based on the three years of information available it could be identified that acrylamide decreased in ‘crackers’, ‘infant biscuits’ and ‘gingerbread’ over the three years, increased in ‘crisp bread’ and ‘instant coffee’, while showing no statistically significant change in six food groups. No European trend could be identified in eight food groups, while there was insufficient information available for ‘wafers’, ‘coffee not specified’ and ‘muesli and porridge’ for the model fit. Mean acrylamide exposure in Europe was estimated to range between 0.31 and 1.1 µg/kg b.w. per day for adults (>18 years), between 0.43 and 1.4 µg/kg b.w. per day for adolescents (11-17 years), between 0.70 and 2.05 µg/kg b.w. per day for children (3-10 years) and between 1.2 and 2.4 µg/kg b.w. per day for toddlers (1-3 years). Major contributors to exposure for adults were ‘fried potatoes’ (including ‘French fries’), ‘coffee’, and ‘soft bread’ whereas for adolescents and children they were ‘fried potatoes’, ‘soft bread’ and ‘potato crisps’ or ‘biscuits’.