Scientific Opinion on the substantiation of health claims related to coffee, including chlorogenic acids from coffee, and protection of DNA, proteins and lipids from oxidative damage (ID 1099, 3152, 4301), maintenance of normal blood glucose concentrations (ID 1100, 1962), and contribution to the maintenance or achievement of a normal body weight (ID 2031, 4326) pursuant to Article 13(1) of Regulation (EC) No 1924/2006

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Article
Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies
EFSA Journal
EFSA Journal 2011;9(4):2057 [23 pp.].
doi
10.2903/j.efsa.2011.2057
Panel members at the time of adoption
Carlo Agostoni, Jean-Louis Bresson, Susan Fairweather-Tait, Albert Flynn, Ines Golly, Hannu Korhonen, Pagona Lagiou, Martinus Løvik, Rosangela Marchelli, Ambroise Martin, Bevan Moseley, Monika Neuhäuser-Berthold, Hildegard Przyrembel, Seppo Salminen, Yolanda Sanz, Sean (J.J.) Strain, Stephan Strobel, Inge Tetens, Daniel Tomé, Hendrik van Loveren and Hans Verhagen
Acknowledgements

The Panel wishes to thank for the preparatory work on this scientific opinion: The members of the Working Group on Claims: Carlo Agostoni, Jean-Louis Bresson, Susan Fairweather-Tait, Albert Flynn, Ines Golly, Marina Heinonen, Hannu Korhonen, Martinus Løvik, Ambroise Martin, Hildegard Przyrembel, Seppo Salminen, Yolanda Sanz, Sean (J.J.) Strain, Inge Tetens, Hendrik van Loveren and Hans Verhagen. The members of the Claims Sub-Working Group on Cardiovascular Health/Oxidative Stress: Antti Aro, Marianne Geleijnse, Marina Heinonen, Ambroise Martin, Wilhelm Stahl and Henk van den Berg. The members of the Claims Sub-Working Group on Weight Management/Satiety/ Glucose and Insulin Control/Physical Performance: Kees de Graaf, Joanne Harrold, Mette Hansen, Mette Kristensen, Anders Sjödin and Inge Tetens.

Contact
Type
Opinion of the Scientific Committee/Scientific Panel
On request from
European Commission
Question Number
EFSA-Q-2008-1838
EFSA-Q-2008-1839
EFSA-Q-2008-2695
EFSA-Q-2008-2764
EFSA-Q-2008-3884
EFSA-Q-2010-00254
EFSA-Q-2010-00279
Adopted
28 January 2011
Published
8 April 2011
Affiliation
European Food Safety Authority (EFSA), Parma, Italy
Note
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Abstract

No abstract available

Summary

Following a request from the European Commission, the Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies was asked to provide a scientific opinion on a list of health claims pursuant to Article 13 of Regulation (EC) No 1924/2006. This opinion addresses the scientific substantiation of health claims in relation to coffee and protection of DNA, proteins and lipids from oxidative damage, maintenance of normal blood glucose concentrations, and contribution to the maintenance or achievement of a normal body weight. The scientific substantiation is based on the information provided by the Member States in the consolidated list of Article 13 health claims and references that EFSA has received from Member States or directly from stakeholders.

The foods/food constituents that are the subject of the health claims are coffee, Coffea Arabica L., chlorogenic acids from coffee, and antioxidants in coffee. The Panel considers that whereas coffee and antioxidants in coffee are not sufficiently characterised in relation to the claimed effects, chlorogenic acids from coffee are sufficiently characterised.

Protection of DNA, proteins and lipids from oxidative damage

The claimed effects are “protection of body tissues, lipids, cells and DNA from oxidative damage”, “oxidative stress reduction” and “coffee naturally contains antioxidants that may support the body’s natural cell defences”. The target population is assumed to be the general population. The Panel considers that protection of DNA, proteins and lipids from oxidative damage may be a beneficial physiological effect.

The Panel considers that the human studies provided did not use suitable markers to assess oxidative damage in vivo. The Panel also notes that in most of the studies provided coffee was not sufficiently characterised in relation to the claimed effect, and that its content of chlorogenic acids was not reported. The Panel considers that evidence provided in in vitro studies is not sufficient to predict the occurrence of an effect of coffee consumption on protection of DNA, lipids or proteins from oxidative damage in vivo in humans.

On the basis of the data presented, the Panel concludes that a cause and effect relationship has not been established between the consumption of chlorogenic acids from coffee and protection of DNA, lipids or proteins from oxidative damage.

Maintenance of normal blood glucose concentrations

The claimed effect is “glucose homeostasis”. The target population is assumed to be the general population. In the context of the proposed wordings, the Panel assumes that the claimed effect refers to the long term maintenance of normal blood glucose concentrations. The Panel considers that long term maintenance of normal blood glucose concentrations is a beneficial physiological effect.

The Panel considers that in the studies provided coffee was not sufficiently characterised in relation to the claimed effect, and/or that outcome measures were not appropriate to assess the long-term maintenance of normal blood glucose concentrations.

On the basis of the data presented, the Panel concludes that a cause and effect relationship has not been established between the consumption of chlorogenic acids in coffee and maintenance of normal blood glucose concentrations.

Contribution to the maintenance or achievement of a normal body weight

The claimed effects are “weight loss and weight control in overweight adults/reduces glucose absorption from gut” and “promotes weight-loss and weight-control in overweight healthy adults by reducing glucose uptake in the gastrointestinal system/absorbance from the gut (by regulating glucose homeostasis in the liver, thus promoting the use as fat as a source of energy in the body)”. The target population is assumed to be the general population. In the context of the proposed wordings, the Panel assumes that the claimed effects refer to body weight control. The Panel considers that contribution to the maintenance or achievement of a normal body weight is a beneficial physiological effect.

No references were provided from which conclusions could be drawn for the scientific substantiation of the claimed effect.

On the basis of the data presented, the Panel concludes that a cause and effect relationship has not been established between the consumption of chlorogenic acids from coffee and contribution to the maintenance or achievement of a normal body weight.

Keywords
Coffee, oxidative damage, blood glucose, weight management, health claims
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Number of Pages
23