Scientific Opinion on the substantiation of health claims related to caffeine and increased fat oxidation leading to a reduction in body fat mass (ID 735, 1484), increased energy expenditure leading to a reduction in body weight (ID 1487), increased alertness (ID 736, 1101, 1187, 1485, 1491, 2063, 2103) and increased attention (ID 736, 1485, 1491, 2375) pursuant to Article 13(1) of Regulation (EC) No 1924/2006

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Article
Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies
EFSA Journal
EFSA Journal 2011; 9(4):2054 [29 pp.].
doi
10.2903/j.efsa.2011.2054
Panel members at the time of adoption
Carlo Agostoni, Jean-Louis Bresson, Susan Fairweather-Tait, Albert Flynn, Ines Golly, Hannu Korhonen, Pagona Lagiou, Martinus Løvik, Rosangela Marchelli, Ambroise Martin, Bevan Moseley, Monika Neuhäuser-Berthold, Hildegard Przyrembel, Seppo Salminen, Yolanda Sanz, Sean (J.J.) Strain, Stephan Strobel, Inge Tetens, Daniel Tomé, Hendrik van Loveren and Hans Verhagen.
Acknowledgements

The Panel wishes to thank for the preparatory work on this scientific opinion: The members of the Working Group on Claims: Carlo Agostoni, Jean-Louis Bresson, Susan Fairweather-Tait, Albert Flynn, Ines Golly, Marina Heinonen, Hannu Korhonen, Martinus Løvik, Ambroise Martin, Hildegard Przyrembel, Seppo Salminen, Yolanda Sanz, Sean (J.J.) Strain, Inge Tetens, Hendrik van Loveren and Hans Verhagen. The members of the Claims Sub-Working Group on Weight Management/Satiety/Glucose and Insulin Control/Physical Performance: Kees de Graaf, Joanne Harrold, Mette Hansen, Mette Kristensen, Anders Sjödin and Inge Tetens. The members of the Claims Sub-Working Group on Mental/Nervous System: Jacques Rigo, Astrid Schloerscheidt, Barbara Stewart-Knox, Sean (J.J.) Strain, and Peter Willatts.

Contact
Type
Opinion of the Scientific Committee/Scientific Panel
On request from
European Commission
Question Number
EFSA-Q-2008-1522
EFSA-Q-2008-1523
EFSA-Q-2008-1840
EFSA-Q-2008-1926
EFSA-Q-2008-2221
EFSA-Q-2008-2222
EFSA-Q-2008-2224
EFSA-Q-2008-2228
EFSA-Q-2008-2796
EFSA-Q-2008-2836
EFSA-Q-2008-3108
Adopted
28 January 2011
Published
8 April 2011
Affiliation
European Food Safety Authority (EFSA), Parma, Italy
Note
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Abstract

No abstract available

Summary

Following a request from the European Commission, the Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies was asked to provide a scientific opinion on a list of health claims pursuant to Article 13 of Regulation (EC) No 1924/2006. This opinion addresses the scientific substantiation of health claims in relation to caffeine and increased fat oxidation leading to a reduction in body fat mass, increased energy expenditure leading to a reduction in body weight, increased alertness, and increased attention. The scientific substantiation is based on the information provided by the Member States in the consolidated list of Article 13 health claims and references that EFSA has received from Member States or directly from stakeholders.

The foods/food constituents that are the subjects of the health claims are Coffea arabica L. (coffee) and other Coffea spp., Paullinia cupana Kunth (guarana) and caffeine. The Panel considers that, whereas the foods/food constituents Coffea arabica L. and Paullinia cupana Kunth are not sufficiently characterised in relation to the claimed effects evaluated in this opinion, the food constituent caffeine is sufficiently characterised.

Increased fat oxidation leading to a reduction in body fat mass

The claimed effect is “fat metabolism/energy expenditure”. The target population is assumed to be the general population. In the context of the proposed wordings, the Panel assumes that the claimed effect refers to an increased fat oxidation leading to a reduction in body fat mass. The Panel considers that increased fat oxidation leading to a reduction in body fat mass might be a beneficial physiological effect.

No references were provided from which conclusions could be drawn for the scientific substantiation of the claim.

On the basis of the data presented, the Panel concludes that a cause and effect relationship has not been established between the consumption of caffeine and an increased fat oxidation leading to a reduction in body fat mass.

Increased energy expenditure leading to a reduction in body weight

The claimed effect is “support of resting metabolic rate and thermogenesis”. The target population is assumed to be the general population. The Panel considers that increased energy expenditure leading to a reduction in body weight might be a beneficial physiological effect.

No references were provided from which conclusions could be drawn for the scientific substantiation of the claim.

On the basis of the data presented, the Panel concludes that a cause and effect relationship has not been established between the consumption of caffeine and increased energy expenditure leading to the reduction of body weight.

Increased alertness

The claimed effects are “cognitive and mental performance”, “mental and physical stimulant effect”, “mental state and performance”, “mental performance (where mental performance stands for those aspects of brain and nerve functions which determine aspects like concentration, learning, memory and reasoning, as well as resistance to stress)”, “mental performance and cognitive function (enhances mental alertness during intense muscular activity)”, and “mental performance”. The target population is assumed to be the general population. In the context of the proposed wordings and the clarifications provided by Member States, the Panel assumes that the claimed effects refer to alertness. The Panel considers that increased alertness might be a beneficial physiological effect.

In weighing the evidence, the Panel took into account that the evidence provided by consensus opinions/reports, and by the majority of the studies submitted for the scientific substantiation of the claim, showed that there was good consensus on the role of caffeine in increasing alertness, measured as speed of reaction times, in healthy individuals of both sexes, at doses of at least 75 mg.

On the basis of the data presented, the Panel concludes that a cause and effect relationship has been established between the consumption of caffeine and increased alertness.
The Panel considers that, in order to bear the claim, a product should contain at least 75 mg caffeine per serving. The target population is the general adult population. For children, consumption of a dose of 5 mg/kg body weight could result in transient behavioural changes, such as increased arousal, irritability, nervousness or anxiety. In relation to pregnancy and lactation, moderation of caffeine intake, from whatever source, is advisable.

Increased attention

The claimed effects are “cognitive and mental performance”, “mental performance (where mental performance stands for those aspects of brain and nerve functions which determine aspects like concentration, learning, memory and reasoning, as well as resistance to stress)”, “mental performance and cognitive function (enhances mental alertness during intense muscular activity)”, and “invigoration of the body”. The target population is assumed to be the general population. In the context of the proposed wordings, the Panel assumes that the claimed effects refer to increased attention. The Panel considers that increased attention is a beneficial physiological effect.

In weighing the evidence, the Panel took into account that the evidence provided by consensus opinions/reports, and by the majority of the studies submitted for the scientific substantiation of the claim, showed that there was good consensus on the role of caffeine in increasing attention, measured by a range of psychometric tasks, in healthy individuals of both sexes, at doses of at least 75 mg.

On the basis of the data presented, the Panel concludes that a cause and effect relationship has been established between the consumption of caffeine and increased attention.
The Panel considers that in order to bear the claim, a product should contain at least 75 mg caffeine per serving. The target population is the general adult population. For children, consumption of a dose of 5 mg/kg body weight could result in transient behavioural changes, such as increased arousal, irritability, nervousness or anxiety. In relation to pregnancy and lactation, moderation of caffeine intake, from whatever source, is advisable.

Keywords
Caffeine, fat metabolism, energy expenditure, alertness, attention, health claims
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Number of Pages
29