Scientific Opinion on Flavouring Group Evaluation 17, Revision 2 (FGE.17Rev2): Pyrazine derivatives from chemical group 24

Flavourings, pyrazine, quinoxaline, food safety, FGE.17, FGE.50Rev1
First published in the EFSA Journal
6 May 2011
25 November 2010
Scientific Opinion


The Panel on Food Contact Materials, Enzymes, Flavourings and Processing Aids of the European Food Safety Authority was requested to evaluate 21 flavouring substances in the Flavouring Group Evaluation 17, Revision 2, using the Procedure in Commission Regulation (EC) No 1565/2000. From the in vitro data available, genotoxic potential is indicated for the flavouring substances quinoxaline [FL-no: 14.147] and 2-methylquinoxaline [FL-no: 14.139]. Therefore, the Panel decided that the Procedure could not be applied to these two substances, so adequate genotoxicity data should be provided. For one substance [FL-no: 14.051] no intake data are available preventing it from being evaluated through the Procedure. The remaining 18 substances were evaluated through a stepwise approach that integrates information on structure-activity relationships, intake from current uses, toxicological threshold of concern, and available data on metabolism and toxicity. The Panel concluded that 17 substances [FL-no: 14.081, 14.083, 14.084, 14.086, 14.087, 14.091, 14.097, 14.099, 14.101, 14.102, 14.108, 14.113, 14.122, 14.127, 14.129, 14.148, and 14.161] do not give rise to safety concerns at their levels of dietary intake, estimated on the basis of the MSDI approach. For the remaining substance [FL-no: 14.052] additional toxicity data are required. Besides the safety assessment of these flavouring substances, the specifications for the materials of commerce have also been considered and for two substances information on specifications is lacking.

Panel members at the time of adoption

Arturo Anadon, Mona-Lise Binderup, Wilfried Bursch, Laurence Castle, Riccardo Crebelli, Karl-Heinz Engel, Roland Franz, Nathalie Gontard, Thomas Haertle, Trine Husøy, Klaus-Dieter Jany, Catherine Leclercq, Jean Claude Lhuguenot, Wim Mennes, Maria Rosaria Milana, Karla Pfaff, Kettil Svensson, Fidel Toldra, Rosemary Waring, Detlef Wölfle
Panel on Food Contact Materials, Enzymes, Flavourings and Processing Aids
cef-unit [at]
EFSA Journal 2011;9(5):1920
Question Number
On request from
European Commission