Pest categorisation of Conotrachelus nenuphar

European Union, pest risk, plant health, plant pest, plum curculio, quarantine
First published in the EFSA Journal
31. Oktober 2018
27. September 2018
Scientific Opinion


The EFSA Panel on Plant Health performed a pest categorisation of Conotrachelus nenuphar (Herbst) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), for the EU. C. nenuphar is a well‐defined species, recognised as a serious pest of stone and pome fruit in the USA and Canada where it also feeds on a range of other hosts including soft fruit (e.g. Ribes,Fragaria) and wild plants (e.g. Crataegus). Adults, which are not good flyers, feed on tender twigs, flower buds and leaves. Females oviposit into host fruit; if oviposition occurs in young fruit, the fruit usually falls prematurely reducing yield; oviposition in older fruit causes surface blemishes and the fruit distorts as it develops reducing marketability. Larvae develop within host fruit but exit to pupate in soil. Adults overwinter in leaf litter. C. nenuphar is not known to occur in the EU and is listed in Annex IAI of Council Directive 2000/29/EC. Fruit infested shortly before harvest and soil with leaf litter accompanying plants for planting could potentially provide a pathway into the EU. Considering the climatic similarities between North America and Europe, and that hosts occur widely within the EU, C. nenuphar has potential to establish within the EU. There could be one or two generations per year, as in North America. Impacts could be expected, e.g. in Prunus spp. and apples. Phytosanitary measures are available to reduce the likelihood of introduction of C. nenuphar. All of the criteria assessed by EFSA for consideration as a potential Union quarantine pest are met. C. nenuphar does not meet the criteria of occurring in the EU nor plants for planting being the principal means of spread. Hence it does not satisfy all of the criteria that are within the remit of EFSA to assess for it to be regarded as a Union regulated non‐quarantine pest (RNQP).

Panel members at the time of adoption

Claude Bragard, Katharina Dehnen‐Schmutz, Francesco Di Serio, Paolo Gonthier, Marie‐Agnès Jacques, Josep Anton Jaques Miret, Annemarie Fejer Justesen, Alan MacLeod, Christer Sven Magnusson, Panagiotis Milonas, Juan A Navas‐Cortes, Stephen Parnell, Roel Potting, Philippe Lucien Reignault, Hans‐Hermann Thulke, Wopke Van der Werf, Antonio Vicent Civera, Jonathan Yuen and Lucia Zappalà.
Panel on Plant Health
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EFSA Journal 2018;16(10):5437
Question Number
On request from
European Commission