Pest categorisation of non‐EU Monochamus spp.

European Union, pest risk, plant health, quarantine, sawyer beetles, pine wood nematode, Bursaphelenchus xylophilus
First published in the EFSA Journal
19. November 2018
27. September 2018
Last Updated
17. April 2019. This version replaces the previous one/s.
Scientific Opinion


The Panel on Plant Health performed a pest categorisation of non‐EU Monochamus spp., a well‐defined insect genus in the family Cerambycidae (Insecta: Coleoptera). Species can be identified using taxonomic keys at national and regional level, and DNA barcoding. Two online world catalogues exist for the genus. The genus includes about one hundred species and many subspecies colonising conifers and non‐conifer trees in many areas in the world. The non‐EU species are listed in Annex IAI of Council Directive 2000/29/EC. Although Monochamus spp. colonise weakened or dead trees and have therefore no direct impact, some species vector the pine wood nematode, Bursaphelenchus xylophilus,which they inoculate to healthy trees when they proceed to maturation feeding on twigs, causing high mortality among pines in Asia and the EU (Portugal). Sixteen species in Asia and America attack conifers. The main pathways for entry are raw untreated wood and wood products, wood packaging material, particle wood and waste wood, finished wood products and hitchhiking. Monochamus species were categorised in two groups. The first group includes 16 species colonising conifers and absent in the EU known or likely to vector the pine wood nematode. The species in this group satisfy all the criteria to be considered as Union quarantine pests. Measures are in place to prevent the introduction of Monochamus with coniferous wood. The second group gathers all the remaining species, all non‐EU species colonising non‐conifers. These do not satisfy all the criteria to be considered as Union quarantine pests. As plants for planting are not a pathway for Monochamus spp., and as most of the species within these groups are absent from the EU territory, the two groups do not meet the criteria to be considered as regulated non‐quarantine pests.

Panel members at the time of adoption

Claude Bragard, Katharina Dehnen‐Schmutz, Francesco Di Serio, Paolo Gonthier, Marie‐Agnès Jacques, Josep Anton Jaques Miret, Anne Marie Fejer Justesen, Alan MacLeod, Christer Sven Magnusson, Panagiotis Milonas, Juan A. Navas‐Cortes, Stephen Parnell, Roel Potting, Philippe L. Reignault, Hans‐Hermann Thulke, Wopke Van der Werf, Antonio Vicent, Jonathan Yuen, Lucia Zappalà
Panel on Plant Health
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EFSA Journal 2018;16(11):5435
Question Number
On request from
European Commission