Safety and efficacy of pyrazine derivatives including saturated ones belonging to chemical group 24 when used as flavourings for all animal species

sensory additives, pyrazine derivatives, safety, chemical group 24
First published in the EFSA Journal
3. Februar 2017
6. Dezember 2016
Scientific Opinion


Following a request from the European Commission, the EFSA Panel on Additives and Products or Substances used in Animal Feed (FEEDAP) was asked to deliver a scientific opinion on the safety and efficacy of 22 compounds belonging to chemical group 24 (pyrazine derivatives). They are currently authorised as flavours in food. The FEEDAP Panel concludes that: 2,3-diethylpyrazine [14.005], 2-ethyl-3-methylpyrazine [14.006], 5,6,7,8-tetrahydroquinoxaline [14.015], 2,3,5,6-tetramethylpyrazine [14.018], 2,3,5-trimethylpyrazine [14.019], 2,5-dimethylpyrazine [14.020], 2,6-dimethylpyrazine [14.021], 2-ethylpyrazine [14.022], 2-ethyl-3,5-dimethylpyrazine [14.024], 2,5 or 6-methoxy-3-methylpyrazine [14.025], 2-methylpyrazine [14.027], acetylpyrazine [14.032], 6,7-dihydro-5-methyl-5H-cyclopenta(b)pyrazine [14.037], 2-isobutyl-3-methoxypyrazine [14.043], 2-acetyl-3-ethylpyrazine [14.049], 2,3-dimethylpyrazine [14.050], 2,3-diethyl-5-methylpyrazine [14.056], 2-(sec-butyl)-3-methoxypyrazine [14.062], 3,(5- or 6-)-dimethyl-2-ethylpyrazine [14.100], 2-ethyl-3-methoxypyrazine [14.112] and 2-methoxy-3-methylpyrazine [14.126] are safe at the proposed maximum dose level (0.5 mg/kg complete feed) as feed for cattle, salmonids and non-food-producing animals, and at the proposed normal use level of 0.1 mg/kg complete feed for pigs and poultry; 5-methylquinoxaline [14.028] are safe only at concentrations below the proposed use levels (0.08 mg/kg complete feed for cattle, salmonids and non-food-producing animals, and 0.05 mg/kg complete feed for pigs and poultry). No safety concern would arise for the consumer from the use of these compounds up to the highest proposed level in feeds. Hazards for skin and eye contact, and respiratory exposure are recognised for the majority of the compounds under application. Most are classified as irritating to the respiratory system. The proposed maximum use levels in feed are unlikely to have detrimental effects on the terrestrial and fresh water compartments. Because all the compounds under assessment are used in food as flavourings and their function in feed is essentially the same as that in food, no further demonstration of efficacy is necessary.

Panel members at the time of adoption

Gabriele Aquilina, Giovanna Azimonti, Vasileios Bampidis, Maria de Lourdes Bastos, Georges Bories, Andrew Chesson, Pier Sandro Cocconcelli, Gerhard Flachowsky, Jürgen Gropp, Boris Kolar, Maryline Kouba, Secundino López Puente, Marta López-Alonso, Alberto Mantovani, Baltasar Mayo, Fernando Ramos, Guido Rychen, Maria Saarela, Roberto Edoardo Villa, Robert John Wallace and Pieter Wester.
Panel on Additives and Products or Substances used in Animal Feed
feedap [at]
EFSA Journal 2017;15(2):4671
Question Number
On request from
European Commission