Scientific Opinion on Dietary Reference Values for manganese


Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies
EFSA Journal
EFSA Journal 2013;11(11):3419 [44 pp.].
Panel Members
Carlo Agostoni, Roberto Berni Canani, Susan Fairweather-Tait, Marina Heinonen, Hannu Korhonen, Sébastien La Vieille, Rosangela Marchelli, Ambroise Martin, Androniki Naska, Monika Neuhäuser-Berthold, Grażyna Nowicka, Yolanda Sanz, Alfonso Siani, Anders Sjödin, Martin Stern, Sean (J.J.) Strain, Inge Tetens, Daniel Tomé, Dominique Turck and Hans Verhagen

The Panel wishes to thank the members of the Working Group on Dietary Reference Values for minerals: Carlo Agostoni, Susan Fairweather-Tait, Marianne Geleijnse, Michael Hambidge, Ambroise Martin, Androniki Naska, Hildegard Przyrembel, Alfonso Siani, and Hans Verhagen for the preparatory work on this scientific opinion and EFSA staff: Anja Brönstrup for the support provided to this scientific opinion.

Opinion of the Scientific Committee/Scientific Panel
On request from
European Commission
Question Number
10. Oktober 2013
Published in the EFSA Journal
4. November 2013
European Food Safety Authority (EFSA), Parma, Italy

Following a request from the European Commission, the Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies (NDA) derived Dietary Reference Values (DRVs) for manganese. Manganese is an essential dietary mineral which is a component of a number of metalloenzymes involved in amino acid, lipid and carbohydrate metabolism. A specific manganese deficiency syndrome has not been described in humans. The body is able to adapt to a wide range of manganese intakes by regulating both efficiency of absorption in the intestine and the quantity excreted via bile. There are no reliable and validated biomarkers of manganese intake or status and data on manganese intakes versus health outcomes are not available for DRVs for manganese. As there is insufficient evidence available to derive an average requirement or a population reference intake, an Adequate Intake (AI) is proposed. Mean intakes of manganese in adults in the EU are around 3 mg/day. In addition, null or positive balances have consistently been observed with intakes of manganese above 2.5 mg/day. An AI of 3 mg/day is proposed for adults, including pregnant and lactating women. For infants aged from 7 to 11 months, an AI of 0.02–0.5 mg/day is proposed, which reflects the wide range of manganese intakes that appear to be adequate for this age group. The AI for children and adolescents is based on extrapolation from the adult AI using isometric scaling and reference body weights of the respective age groups.

manganese, Dietary Reference Value, Adequate Intake
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